Money in politics, climate change, and gender are overtaking more traditional corporate governance concerns as top topics for shareholder advocacy in the U.S.

More than two-thirds of the proposals that pension funds, socially conscious investors, and others want to put to a vote at Russell 3000 companies this year cover environmental and social matters, rather than governance-related subjects such as executive pay, according to data collected so far by Institutional Shareholder Services Inc.

ISS, which gives institutional investors recommendations for how to vote, said it’s part of a recent shift in the kind of issues shareholder advocates are raising and...