The European Union should do more to relieve the pressures on the Arctic ecosystem or risk a breakdown of “the Arctic’s role in global climate regulation,” the European Environment Agency said June 15.

Specific measures for the 28-nation EU bloc to take could include initiatives to limit marine litter and black carbon, designation of more nature conservation areas in the European Arctic, phasing out the use of diesel generators in the Arctic in favor of renewable power, and designating low...