Companies in some regions could see fewer workplace health inspections and a respite from Obama-era worker health regulations in the upcoming year, as the Trump administration continues its business-friendly regulatory path.

Workplace inspections are down 3.1 percent from Jan. 20 to Nov. 17 in the 28 states and territories that administer state programs under the OSH Act. At the federal level, OSHA is signaling it wants to work less punitively with businesses, but it still performed about 2 percent more...